Transplantes de células madre: la posible cura del Sida descubierta en España

Científicas de IrsiCaixa y el Hospital Gregorio Marañón han logrado que el VIH remita en seis pacientes transfiriendoles células madre provenientes de médula ósea.

La cura definitiva del VIH podría estar mucho más cerca de lo que pensábamos. La investigadora del Insituto de Investigación del Sida IrsiCaixa de Barcelona María Salgado, junto con la hematóloga del Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Mi Kwon, publicaban este martes en la revista Annals of Internal Medicine un artículo donde exponían sus avances a este respecto.

Las investigadoras aplicaron un trasplante de células madre de cordón ubilical y médula ósea a seis pacientes que padecían VIH. En todos los casos el virus no se detecta en sangre y tejidos, y en uno incluso se halla ausencia de anticuerpos, lo que podría significar que el VIH podría haber desaparecido por completo.

La causa de que no se pueda curar el VIH con fármacos, explican, es el reservorio viral, células infectadas que permanecen en estado latente y no pueden ser detectadas por el sistema inmune. El trasplante de células madre podría contribuir a eliminar este reservorio.

Después de sufrir el transplante, los y las pacientes siguieron con el tratamiento antirretroviral durante un tiempo. Después de dejar la medicación,  en 5 de los casos el reservorio era indetectable en sangre y tejidos, y en uno de ellos no se encontraron anticuerpos virales 7 años después de sufrir el trasplante. La única persona que participó y mostró un reservorio detectable había recibido un trasplante de sangre de cordón umbilical. El resto fueron de médula.

Salgado afirma que los resultados de la investigación arrojan luz sobre una posible cura definitiva del VIH. Los hechos comprobados llevan a pensar que ya no tienen el VIH en la sangre, pero esto «solo se puede confirmar deteniendo el tratamiento y comprobando si el virus reaparece

https://twitter.com/ierrejon/status/1052522111632330752

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